Environmental impact and potential use of coal fly ash and sub-economical quarry fine aggregates in concrete
The Israeli quarry industry produces 57 Mt of raw material and similar to'4-6 Mt of associated sub-economical by-products annually. These sub -economical quarry fines are not used because production and transportation costs considerably exceed their retail value. Therefore these by-products, are stored in large piles of fine grain size particles, create environmental risks to their surrondings. This paper evaluates the possibility of mixing the sub -economical quarry by-products of two Israeli quarries with sub -economical Class F coal fly ash (<20 wt.% CaO) to form an economical aggregate sand subkitute to be used as a concrete filler product. To study the feasibility of the aggregate as partial substitute to sand in concrete several analyses, including leaching experiements (EN12457-2), analytical techinques (SEM-EDX, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, and XRD), as well as an analysis of the mechanical and chemical properties of the concrete aggregate (strength, workability, and penetration) were performed. Scrubbing quarry waste with coal fly ash was found to be very effective for reducing the leaching rate of potentially harmful trace elements. In addition, adding fly ash with quarry fines as partial substitute to sand enhanced the performance of the concrete mixture and the properties of the fresh and harden concrete. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.