Parametric Down-Conversion of X Rays into the Optical Regime
We report the observation of parametrically down-converted x-ray signal photons at photon energies that correspond to idler photons at optical wavelengths. The count-rate dependence on the angles of the input beam and of the detector and on the slit sizes agrees with theory within the experimental uncertainties. The nonlinear susceptibility, which we calculated from the measured efficiencies, is comparable to the nonlinear susceptibility evaluated from the measurements of x-ray and optical wave mixing. The results of the present Letter advance the development of a spectroscopy method for probing valence-electron charges and the microscopic optical response of crystals with atomic-scale resolution.